What is Manual testing?

What is Manual Testing?

checking the functionality of an application according to given requirements manually is called manual testing.

or using the application like end-users to make it bug-free or stable is known as testing.

the process of verification and validation for an application is known as testing.

Type of Manual  Testing :

  • white box testing: It is also called as glass box testing, unit testing, This is called white box testing because the developer sees the code and correct it to minimize the bug. It is done by the developer where they check each and every line of code before handing over the application to the test engineer.

During the process the code is visible to the developers, hence it also known as glass box testing.process of white-box testing :

  1. Generally, white box testing is done to reduce some bug in the application
  2. If we perform White Box testing manually drawbacks are accuracy may not be maintained. since the developer becomes overconfident, as he himself written a cord.
  3. It is a tedious process , since an application may consist of lakh of lines of codes.
  4. It is a time-consuming process because wherever a test engineer fixes the bug the developer has to fix the bug and perform white box testing again as the bug fixes may affect other parts of the code.

White box testing process 

  • Doing white box testing manually has some limitations like execution takes more time, accuracy may not maintain, and its a tedious process.
  • Hence white box testing is always done with the help of UTP.
  • UTP is small program that is written with the help of unit testing tools , and this program when executed goes and checks the main program.

Advantages of doing WBT by using UTP are :

  1. It is a time-saving process and execution happens faster and simultaneously UTP can be executed.
  2. Accuracy exists since and tedious task is done manually we may escape some task but If some things perform by using a tool it never gets bored and does not escape the values since its a machine.

Notes: UTP program or code is written.

  1. whenever the developer changes the code because of bug fixes, we never change the UTP.
  2. whereas if developers change the code because of requirements change in these cases we should change the corresponding unit test program.


Path Testing: we check the execution flow of function and  total no of paths

Condition Testing: This type the developer checking the written programs work for true as well as false condition.

Loop Testing: Here developers concentrate on the total no of interactions specified in the program. If the condition is satisfied in between then the program should be stopped executable else continue until it is satisfied or till the last cycle. Total no of iteration executed or not.

Memory Testing: In memory testing the developer check for all unused lines of code which is not required for execution for the program and remove them by using tools.

Response Testing: Here developer checks for the execution time of the program.

Black Box Testing: checking the functionality of an application according to the customer requirement is known as black-box testing.

  • In the black testing test engineer test the application,he only sees the application code present inside it .hence it is known as Black Box Testing.

Types of  Black Box Testing:

  1. Functional Testing: Checking each and every component of module of an application independently is known as functional testing.

Note: whenever we are testing one component all other components must be positive and valid so that we can easily identify where the bug is.

Functional testing only guarantee is that module or component is working independently whereas it does not talk about the stability of module.

2. Integration Testing: Checking the data flow between dependent modules is known as integration testing.

Type of Integration Testing

  • Incremental Integration Testing: we go for this approach where there is a clear relationship between this module.
  • Top-down approach: In this type, we add module incrementally from top to the bottom and check for data flow in some order.
  • Bottom-up approach: In this type, module is added incrementally from bottom to the top and data flow is checked in the same order.

3. System Testing: checking end to end the flow of an application like a user is known as system testing.

In system testing, we navigate through all the necessary modules of an application and test it as a whole system.

  • Grey Box Testing: The combination of WBT and BBT is known as Grey Box Testing.
  1. It generally is done by a test engineer who has knowledge of coding as well as testing.
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